By Nicholas Spencer
Via constructing the concept that of severe area, After Utopia offers a brand new family tree of twentieth-century American fiction. Nicholas Spencer argues that the novel American fiction of Jack London, Upton Sinclair, John Dos Passos, and Josephine Herbst reimagines the spatial matters of past due nineteenth-century utopian American texts. rather than absolutely imagined utopian societies, such fiction depicts localized utopian areas that offer crucial help for the versions of heritage on which those authors concentration. within the midcentury novels of Mary McCarthy and Paul Goodman and the past due twentieth-century fiction of Thomas Pynchon, William Gaddis, Joan Didion, and Don DeLillo, narratives of social house develop into decreasingly utopian and more and more serious. The hugely various "critical area" of such texts attains a place just like that liked by way of representations of historic transformation in early twentieth-century radical American fiction. After Utopia unearths that crucial elements of postmodern American novels derive from the openly political narratives of London, Sinclair, Dos Passos, and Herbst.Spencer makes a speciality of exact moments within the upward push of severe house prior to now century and relates them to the writing of Georg Luk?cs, Ernst Bloch, Antonio Gramsci, Hannah Arendt, Henri Lefebvre, Gilles Deleuze and F?lix Guattari, and Paul Virilio. The systematic and genealogical come upon among severe conception and American fiction finds shut parallels among and unique analyses of those parts of twentieth-century cultural discourse.
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Additional resources for After utopia: the rise of critical space in twentieth-century American fiction
Well, I wasn’t my own boss any more’ ” (52). In this passage London portrays various forms of determinism as a trap: the biological determinism of family life has imprisoned Smith in class struggle and economic history. It is also an ironic passage because Smith identiﬁes the position beyond determinism as that of the naturalist. London’s wish to negate history is often couched in Nietzschean terms. For example, at the novel’s conclusion, Avis can adhere to an optimistic vision of socialism only by attaining “a star-cool altitude” and “a passionless transvaluation of values” (327, 327–28).
5 London’s novel thus moves away from its initial deterministic outlook in two ways. On the one hand, the narrative resorts to noneconomistic versions of determinism. On the other hand, London evokes the need for revolutionary control of contingent events. The conﬂict between these two perspectives exerts considerable pressure on the narrative, and London intimates a desire to reject all models of history as a means of escaping such contradictory impulses. 0pt PgV ——— Normal Page PgEnds: TEX , (11) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 a view is reinforced by the reﬂections of James Smith, one of those who testiﬁes against the injured worker in The Iron Heel: “ ‘I wanted to become a naturalist,’ he explained shyly, as though confessing a weakness.
However, The Iron Heel turns increasingly toward the view represented by Lukács’s criticisms of Luxemburg. The spontaneism of the Fighting Groups often breaks free of centralized control, and one unit in particular, the ’Frisco Reds, is described as a group of “fanatics, madmen” (280). The critique of spontaneism is most apparent in the novel’s ﬁnale. As the revolutionists are preparing their First Revolt, the Oligarchy provokes an uprising in Chicago. During the chaos that ensues, “the people of the abyss” are described as “a raging, screaming, screeching demoniacal horde” (326, 327).
After utopia: the rise of critical space in twentieth-century American fiction by Nicholas Spencer