By Sergio Franco
This textbook is meant for EE majors envisioning commercial careers in analog electronics. Analog integrated-circuit (IC) designers, product, procedure, and reliability engineers, try out and test-development engineers, analog functions, advertising, and customer-support engineers are continuously in robust call for.
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Extra resources for Analog Circuit Design: Discrete & Integrated
Regardless of the doping type, the material remains at all times neutrally charged because for every charge that has been freed there is the charge of the ionized atom left behind, which is of the opposite polarity. Figure. 35 depicts n and p for three significant cases. p > NA Drift and Diffusion Currents There are two types of conduction mechanisms in semiconductors, often coexisting: drift and diffusion. ● The Drift Current: To discuss the drift mechanism, refer to Fig. 36a, top, where a slab of p-type material is assumed to be immersed in an electric field of strength E (in V/cm).
54b) The lengths Lp and Ln are typically on the order of 101 m, so we generally have Lp @ xn and Ln @ xp. Note that p9n → 0 at the right end of the n-type slab (x 5 Wn), as the excess holes undergo total recombination with the electrons of the metal electrode there. Likewise, n9p → 0 at the left end of the p-type slab (x 5 2Wp), as excess electrons undergo total removal by the metal electrode there. 45 46 Chapter 1 Diodes and the pn Junction By Eq. 27a) the diffusion of excess holes toward the right results in the current density Jp(x) 5 2qDpdp9n(x)ydx.
Then, in this region we have n 2i p > NA 2 ND n > ________ NA 2 ND An additional diffusion is made to create a heavily doped n-type region to ensure an ohmic contact between the n-type slab and a metal (more on this later in the chapter), and finally metal depositions are made to allow for the interconnection of the device to external circuitry. The dimensions of the above device are in the range of micro meters (1 m 5 1026 m). Such tiny dimensions allow for the simultaneous fabrication of a very large number of devices on the same wafer.
Analog Circuit Design: Discrete & Integrated by Sergio Franco