International conflict i used to be a watershed in smooth global historical past. at the battlefield, hundreds of thousands have been slaughtered via chemical conflict, desktop weapons, and trench warfare—and this mindless bloodletting is still the main enduring legacy of the nice conflict. serious to figuring out the war’s value is the often-overlooked emergence of a “modern” dynamic grassroots peace move that either antagonistic warfare and sought to abolish its social causes.
Edited by way of Scott H. Bennett and Charles F. Howlett, Antiwar Dissent and Peace Activism in international battle I the USA offers basic records, such a lot anthologized for the 1st time, illustrating competition and resistance to the struggle and the government’s efforts to advertise the conflict and limit dissent. This clean assortment highlights the vast diversity of antiwar sentiment: non secular and secular, liberal and radical, pacifist and nonpacifist, together with conscientious objection. It additionally addresses key concerns raised by means of the antiwar movement—particularly dissent in wartime, civil liberties, the which means of patriotism, and citizen peace activism—that stay important to knowing American democracy.
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Extra resources for Antiwar Dissent and Peace Activism in World War I America: A Documentary Reader
They used work strikes, hunger strikes, and nonviolent noncooperation to resist poor conditions, the harsh treatment of cos, military regulations that violated their conscience, and conscription itself. Fort Leavenworth and Fort Riley became key sites of struggle between military authorities and cos. Absolutists such as Evan Thomas, Howard Moore, Harold Gray, Julius Eichel, and Erling Lunde openly resisted conscription and military control over their lives—and they sometimes won concessions from the government.
Stevenson named sixtytwo individuals—a “Who’s Who in Pacifism and Radicalism”—who had opposed the First World War. His list included wartime peace activists Jane Addams, Emily Greene Balch, Roger Baldwin, Eugene V. Debs, John Haynes Holmes, Jessie W. Hughan, William I. Hull, Rufus M. Jones, David Starr Jordan, Louis P. 39 In short, the postwar Red Scare, whose targets included antiwar dissidents and peace activists, continued the wartime intolerance against radicalism and dissent. The intensified Americanism, patriotism, nationalism, antiradicalism, and demand for conformity that accompanied World War I did not end with the Armistice.
Kellogg later wrote, “Although I had never set eyes on a conscientious objector, I firmly believed that they were, as a class, shirkers and cowards. My first trip as a member of the Board upset most of my ideas regarding the objector. I began to see him in a new light. ”24 On occasion cos waged nonviolent protests and rebellions— individual and collective—in military camps and prisons. They used work strikes, hunger strikes, and nonviolent noncooperation to resist poor conditions, the harsh treatment of cos, military regulations that violated their conscience, and conscription itself.
Antiwar Dissent and Peace Activism in World War I America: A Documentary Reader