By R. Rappaport (auth.), Nuri Akkaş (eds.)
Cytomechanics is the applying of the classical rules of mechanics in mobile biology. it really is an utilized technology all for the outline and evaluate of mechanical houses of cells and their organelles in addition to of the forces exerted through them. therefore, this subject wishes a really interdisciplinary process, and hence this quantity offers an updated account of the present learn performed on mobile department, mitosis, cytokinesis, mobile locomotion and telephone deformation in the course of common improvement and the cytoskeletal function in cellphone form. Biologists, biomechanicians, biophysicists, biochemists and biomathematicians the following speak about the elemental thoughts of mechanics and thermodynamics, emphasizing their applicability to mobile activities.
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Extra resources for Biomechanics of Active Movement and Deformation of Cells
E~ _ _ CHROMOSOME PROMETAPHASE ANAPHASE A 1\~I::~==~~@~E TELOPHASE Figure 1. A diagram showing the phases of mitosis. The chromosomes conde"nse during prophase, organize during prometaphase, separate during anaphase, and go back into the interphase condition during telophase. Redrawn from McIntosh and McDonald, 1989. 37 or pole, of the spindle. " This process of congress ion usually requires many minutes. " Metaphase ends and "anaphase" begins with the separation of the two chromatids of each chromosome, so that each may move towards the spindle pole it faces.
Fig. 3a is a transverse section at the metaphase plate. The dark objects are chromosomes, and the numerous microtubules that run perpendicular to the plane of section are evident. Fig. 3b is a longitudinal section of a metaphase chromosome, showing its kinetochores (K) and the microtubules ending on them. The double nature of the chromosome is apparent from the two kinetochores. The stages of mitosis can be recognized in the light or electron microscopes by visualizing the chromosomes. Figure 4 shows a prophase cell in the electron microscope, and the 41 microtubule initiating activity at the centrosome is evident, while the chromosomes are condensing in the nucleus.
J Cell Biol 74:251-263 31 McClendon JF (1908) The segmentation of the Arch forbesii deprived of chromatin. Organismen 26:662-668 eggs of Asterias Entwicklungsmech Rappaport R (1960) Cleavage of sand dollar eggs under constant tensile stress. J Exp Zool 144:225-231 Rappaport R (1961) Experiments concerning the cleavage stimulus in sand dollar eggs. J Exp Zool 148:81-89 Rappaport R (1966) Experiments concerning the cleavage furrow in invertebrate eggs. J Exp Zool 161:1-8 Rappaport R (1967) Cell division: Direct measurement of maximum Science tension exerted by furrow of echinoderm eggs.
Biomechanics of Active Movement and Deformation of Cells by R. Rappaport (auth.), Nuri Akkaş (eds.)